Tuesday, March 24, 2020

Biography Of Tiger Woods Essays - Tiger Woods, Earl Woods, Tiger

Biography of Tiger Woods "Let your clubs speak for you." Tiger Woods was too young to notice the racism around him. He didn't understand that in this world, people were judged by the color of their skin. He couldn't speak out about it; he couldn't voice his opinions, or come up with possible solutions because he was too young. Tiger faced many racial ordeals throughout his life, mainly because he was half-Thai and half-black. He broke into the sport of golf as one of the youngest. He not only wanted to be the best black golfer; he wanted to be the b est golfer. The only way Tiger dealt with racism was to let his clubs do all the talking for him. The book starts off with Earl Woods, Tiger's father, during the Vietnam War. A sniper almost took out Earl but his friend saved him. Later on that day, he gets in a predicament with a bamboo viper, and once again, his friend saves him. The friend's name was Nguyen Phong, and he was good in combat; he was a tiger in combat. Nguyen Phong had the nickname of "Tiger". Earl vowed that if he ever had an o ther son, he would call him "Tiger". After the war, back in the United States, Earl met a Thai woman named Kultida and he married her and had a son. They named the baby Eldrick, but Earl called him "Tiger". Tiger Woods took interest in golf at a young age. He would watch from his crib as his father would practice his swing. He began playing golf since before he could walk. When he got a few years older, he began to compete in the Junior Nationals tournaments against older boys. He didn't hav e the strength to drive the ball far, but he had skill; he was blessed. Earl made Tiger some miniature clubs out of his old ones and from that moment on, he was obsessed with the sport. The way that Tiger played, it was no longer a sport, it became an art. With every hole he played, his game progressed to a whole new level. As Tiger grew older, he still played tournaments and racked up his victories, he even played for Harvard's golf team. Harvard was interested in having him play for them sinc e an early age. Later on in his career, he started to show that he wasn't perfect. He showed that he too made mistakes and was just like everybody else.The author of the book definitely knows a lot about Tiger. He got a lot of information for the book directly from Kultida and Earl Woods. John Strege wanted others to get to know Tiger. He wrote this book to show how Tiger got to be where he is now. The book starts off with how Tiger got the name Tiger. It was obvious that the author admired Tig e r. I really liked this book because I did not know where Tiger got his name. It was interesting to read about how Earl Woods vowed to call his next son Tiger to repay his friend Nguyen Phong for saving his life. I am not one to take interest in golf but this book was exciting. I liked reading about how Tiger started at a really young age and practiced everyday to perfect his game. Tiger is a good example of that if you put your mind to something, if you try hard enough, and focus all your atte n tion on something, you can do it; that right there you can apply to all aspects of life, not just golf or any other sport. I thought that this book was going to be boring because golf is boring, but I was really interested in reading details about all these tournaments that Tiger played in. I felt as if I was really there watching Tiger play golf. I don't think that there was anything wrong with this book; I didn't dislike anything about it. I think the reason why I didn't find anything wrong w ith this book was that this book is a biography and you can't really change the story too much because it is about someone's life. If I could have Biography Of Tiger Woods Essays - Tiger Woods, Earl Woods, Tiger Biography of Tiger Woods "Let your clubs speak for you." Tiger Woods was too young to notice the racism around him. He didn't understand that in this world, people were judged by the color of their skin. He couldn't speak out about it; he couldn't voice his opinions, or come up with possible solutions because he was too young. Tiger faced many racial ordeals throughout his life, mainly because he was half-Thai and half-black. He broke into the sport of golf as one of the youngest. He not only wanted to be the best black golfer; he wanted to be the b est golfer. The only way Tiger dealt with racism was to let his clubs do all the talking for him. The book starts off with Earl Woods, Tiger's father, during the Vietnam War. A sniper almost took out Earl but his friend saved him. Later on that day, he gets in a predicament with a bamboo viper, and once again, his friend saves him. The friend's name was Nguyen Phong, and he was good in combat; he was a tiger in combat. Nguyen Phong had the nickname of "Tiger". Earl vowed that if he ever had an o ther son, he would call him "Tiger". After the war, back in the United States, Earl met a Thai woman named Kultida and he married her and had a son. They named the baby Eldrick, but Earl called him "Tiger". Tiger Woods took interest in golf at a young age. He would watch from his crib as his father would practice his swing. He began playing golf since before he could walk. When he got a few years older, he began to compete in the Junior Nationals tournaments against older boys. He didn't hav e the strength to drive the ball far, but he had skill; he was blessed. Earl made Tiger some miniature clubs out of his old ones and from that moment on, he was obsessed with the sport. The way that Tiger played, it was no longer a sport, it became an art. With every hole he played, his game progressed to a whole new level. As Tiger grew older, he still played tournaments and racked up his victories, he even played for Harvard's golf team. Harvard was interested in having him play for them sinc e an early age. Later on in his career, he started to show that he wasn't perfect. He showed that he too made mistakes and was just like everybody else.The author of the book definitely knows a lot about Tiger. He got a lot of information for the book directly from Kultida and Earl Woods. John Strege wanted others to get to know Tiger. He wrote this book to show how Tiger got to be where he is now. The book starts off with how Tiger got the name Tiger. It was obvious that the author admired Tig e r. I really liked this book because I did not know where Tiger got his name. It was interesting to read about how Earl Woods vowed to call his next son Tiger to repay his friend Nguyen Phong for saving his life. I am not one to take interest in golf but this book was exciting. I liked reading about how Tiger started at a really young age and practiced everyday to perfect his game. Tiger is a good example of that if you put your mind to something, if you try hard enough, and focus all your atte n tion on something, you can do it; that right there you can apply to all aspects of life, not just golf or any other sport. I thought that this book was going to be boring because golf is boring, but I was really interested in reading details about all these tournaments that Tiger played in. I felt as if I was really there watching Tiger play golf. I don't think that there was anything wrong with this book; I didn't dislike anything about it. I think the reason why I didn't find anything wrong w ith this book was that this book is a biography and you can't really change the story too much because it is about someone's life. If I could have

Friday, March 6, 2020

Dino Conti Essay Example

Dino Conti Essay Example Dino Conti Paper Dino Conti Paper Odin Contain Ice Cream Introduction Doll Contain Is a manufacturer and distributor of Ice cream In California. Its most famous product Is its chocolate Ice cream. Now, Odin Coitions profits are falling because of its prices, products, equipment, environment and outlets. Objectives To solve the companys problems and to continue to become international business, we propose an investment of $3 million . Options and Benefits The Board of Directors has agreed the following investment plan. Upgrade its equipments to improve its quality of products. Add more outlets to make its products recognized easily in the market to increase the sales. Improve products packaging to interested the customers. Make the company more green. Cost upgrade equipment Add more outlets $1 ,million $500,000 Improve products packaging $500,000 Make the company more green $800 Schedule upgrade equipment: Start on January and completed at May. Add more outlets: Begin at May and finish on middle of August. Improve product packaging: Begins development In April Make the company more green: The campaign will be start at the end of the year through online until March next year. Summary A presentation to the board on June 9th. Can managers will always control tense projects

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The Lack of benefits available to soldiers returning from the Middle Term Paper

The Lack of benefits available to soldiers returning from the Middle East with mental and physically disorders - Term Paper Example It has been projected by some that close to fifty percent of current Middle East conflict veterans will seek medical treatment from the Veterans Administration. More than sixty percent of these injured veterans will seek short-term treatment, defined as medical care that lasts less than five years, but the other approximately forty percent of them will remain in the Veteran's Administration health care system for the rest of their lives (Patsner, n.p.). Unfortunately for these brave men and women, the resources available to treat injured and disabled veterans are currently severely lacking in quality. There are many reasons for the current situation. Among them are the sheer number of injured veterans returning from these conflicts and the cost of treating them, the type of injuries that are returning home, the number of veterans already in the system that also require care, the inadequacy of the existing system to handle patient transfers when a veteran moves from one part of the sy stem to another, and the lack of preparedness by primary care physicians outside the Veterans' Administration system to deal with war-related injuries. Many Americans are aware of the extremely high costs of the Middle East conflicts, as these operations have resulted in a continuous presence of American military members in that theater since the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center attack. As of the end of the 2010 fiscal year, the United States federal government had spent seven hundred and fifty-one billion dollars in Iraq and three hundred thirty-six billion dollars in Afghanistan (Belasco, p. 1). However, many people are not aware of the costs incurred after the injured veterans of these conflicts return home. One projection states that the costs of life-long medical care, disability benefits, and social security and pension benefits for veterans of the current Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts could eventually total over seven hundred billion dollars, which is more than the over all cost for the first five years of the conflict (Patsner, n.p.). Additionally, up to forty-five percent of Gulf War veterans may apply for long-term disability benefits. Over eighty-eight percent of those applying will be at least partially eligible to receive some form of disability payments. These disability claims could potentially add another three hundred fifty-five billion dollars to the total cost of health care for injured veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts (Patsner, n.p.) The Department of Defense and the Veterans' Administration have been ill-prepared to deal with the flood of injured service members and veterans returning from these conflicts. In 2001, before the current Middle East operations had begun, the number of backlogged Veteran's Administration cases was near one hundred thousand. As of April 2008, the number of unprocessed cases had jumped to over six hundred thousand. This means that not only are the currently returning veterans not being treated efficiently, resources are being re-directed from older veterans and reducing their access to care as well (Kenneth & Burris, 2330-39). This backlog of untreated cases, as well as the complexity of the application process for use of the Veterans' Administration medical resources, can lead to more issues of aggravated injuries for those veterans that are not adequately and quickly treated for their injuries. Due to the lack of screening as veterans separate from active

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Routine CT scanning protocols of head, chest and abdomen Essay

Routine CT scanning protocols of head, chest and abdomen - Essay Example As with the benefits of any new medical technology, CT also has its share of woes in terms of exposure of patients to high dose radiation. It is challenging to optimise and reduce the dose without compromising the image quality and resolution. This paper aims at bringing out optimization of the radiation dosage by modifying existing parameters based on latest discoveries and innovations. The most direct method of reducing the radiation dose reduction is that of decreasing the tube voltage and tube potential. However, the use of other techniques including Automatic Emission Control, Imaging Filters and Noise Reducing Filters also aid in reduction of radiation dosage without diminishing the image quality. The machines used for routine CT at KSMC are the General Electronics system, the Philips system and the Siemens Somatome Sensation 16 Slice. For this evaluation, I would focus on the Siemens system as my experience is confined to the same. The CT scanning protocols for head, chest and abdomen will be covered in this paper. CT can be performed with or without contrast and the procedure essentially depends on the physician performing the imaging procedure. Table 1 shows the numerous parameters and dimensions for the CT scan of the human skull using KSMC’s protocol. Skull imaginative view, reconnoitre vision of the brain SOM (supra orbito meatal) line are the baselines for this assessment. This protocol does not use IV contrast or oral contrast. The second protocol used is for mass lesion or tumour. The second protocol is similar to the first one but uses IV contrast that is set between 100cc to 120cc of Omnipaque 350. Patient preparation and training vary for protocols with and without contrast. In protocols using no contrast, patient training is not necessary, while procedures using contrast require that the four elementary steps be completed, the steps being; only one CT scan

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Radio Resource Allocation Scheme

Radio Resource Allocation Scheme Intended for the multi-cell OFDMA based downlink network the Problem is to be formulated as an optimal joint resource allocation. Unfortunately, there is no time-efficient algorithm that can optimally solve equation (4.4) and directly finding the optimal solution will be computationally excessive at the point when the quantity of users and PRBs is huge in the all system. Subsequently, a conceivable problematic asset allotment framework proposed in this undertaking work. So as to decrease the multifaceted nature the asset designation plan is partitioned into two stages; radio asset and power allotments. In this segment, First we clarify the advancement of heuristic calculation for coarse ICIC and fine PRB task to accomplish a concentrated radio asset portion in the system. Subsequent to getting the answer for the radio asset assignment is and after that performed power portion in the second step, which will be talked about in the following area. Radio resources allocation scheme consisting of two phase, Phase 1-ICIC Phase 2- Fine PRB assignment. Phase-1 ICIC In the first phase of our proposed radio resource allocation is to develop an ICIC system using a simple but effective graph-based framework., Our objective is to develop chart that reflects real impedance happening in the ongoing system environment. As per the diagram hypothesis, the relating impedance chart is indicated by G=(V,E) where V is a situated of hubs every speaking to a client in the system, and E is a situated of edges uniting clients that can bring about overwhelming shared obstruction when they are assigned the same PRB. To decrease many-sided quality, the obstruction power for edge associations is resolved only by the nearness of clients in the system and topographical area. ie., cell-edge users suffer from severe interference due to the shorter distances to the adjacent BSs. The information for exact SINR measurements is not required at this stage. For building the edge association per pair, we characterize that the edge between user can and b is associated when E(a,b)=1, generally E(a,b)=0 and note that E(a,b)=E(b,a). The interference graph construction consisting of two basic rules they are as follows, Users inside of the same cell are commonly joined The association for any cell edge user is just match insightful set up with other cell-edge user of its dominant inteferering cells. The meaning of prevailing meddling cells is clarified by the previously stated presumption in framework model. Let Dm mean the set containing lists of prevailing meddling cells to cell-edge user m. Thus, an expressive illustration is shown in figure 5.1 given by (a) presents a simple 3-cell network case, where user 1,2,3 and 5 are cell-edge users of each cell and D1={1}, D2=à Ã‚ ¤, D3={3}, D5={1,2}, respectively. Then the corresponding interference graph is constructed. The concept of this graph-based framework is that simultaneous transmission on the same PRB is prohibited for users who are connected by edges, and thus both intra-cell interference and major ICI can be avoided in the network. Fig 5.1: An example of the graph-based framework. (a) 3-cell scenario (b) Interference graph construction. Phase-II Fine PRB Assignment The first phase construction offers the network with a strategic planning for ICIC but the actual PRB allocation has not been done up till now. In the second phase, therefore we will come to a decision how to practically make the PRB assignment in the network given the interference graph. To reduce complexity, a heuristic algorithm is proposed here to perform a fine PRB allocation by taking account of the instantaneous channel quality. As, major ICI is well looked after by the first stage in the second stage we consider simply SNR for ease by removing the interdependency matter of SINR At this stage power is thought to be similarly disseminated over all PRBs as a result of the force allotment will be tended to in next segment. Thus, SNR for m on PRB n is computed by SNRnm=(Pmax/N)g(j-m)/N0, where j is the serving cell of user m. Let Rm be the arrangement of users why should permitted have the same PRB or in another word, the same shading with user m in the system. Then the PRB allocation can be described in Algorithm 1. Note that finding the necessary Rm is also included in this algorithm. As indicated in Algorithm 1, the PRB assignment decision made to a user is resolved by the in a split second accomplished SNR as well as by a weighting element show by wm. The primary capacity of wm is to adjust the PRB distribution between cell-edge and cell-focus users of the system, i.e., higher weighting worth is given to cell-edge users as altogether reason they accomplish much lower SNRs contrasted with those of cell-focus users. Then again, the relative decency is likewise considered by making note of the quantity of PRBs as of now being used and in this way keeps the PRB designation from being selfishly abused by minority users in the system., Therefore, calculation 1 has the capacity perform PRB allotment that proficiently accomplishes a general execution change with great fairness amidst those two sorts of users in the system taking into account the weighted SNR . At that point the PRB designation can be demonstrated in Algorithm 1. As shown in Algorithm 1, the PRB contribute to choice complete to a user is strong-minded not just with the right away achieved SNR other than too with a weighing factor indicated by wm. The first function of wm is to balance the PRB allocation among cell-edge and cell-centre users of the network, i.e., higher weighting value is given to cell-edge users as in general they achieve much lower SNRs compared to those of cell-centre users. Then again, the relative uniformity is additionally considered by making note of the quantity of PRBs officially involved and in this way keeps the PRB assignment from being selfishly abused by minority users in the system. Thus wm can be expressed by wm=w/|Nm|, where Nm is set of PRBs that are before allocated to user m,| ` | is the cardinality of a set (note that |Nm|= 1 if Nm=à Ã‚ ¤), w = we when user m is a cell-edge user, otherwise w=wc and we>wc for return of the relatively low SNR received by cell-edge users. Algorithm 1 is able to perform PRB allocation based on the weighted SNR that effectively achieves an overall performance improvement with good fairness among those two types of users within the network. Therefore, radio resource distribution schemes effectively mitigated major ICI among cell-edge users of the network. On the other hand, cell-centre users are authorized to distribute PRBs by means of all users within the network (except their serving cells) and thereby may interfere with either cell-edge or cell-centre users of the adjacent cells depending on the PRB allocation by Algorithm 1, This interference determination be dealt by way of the following power allocation move towards. Power Allocation Approach Subsequent to completing the PRB assignment, the estimations of all parallel variable aj mn in mathematical statement (4.4) are resolved. Hence, the first issue is diminished to streamlining issue where just transmission power pj mn is considered. Not at all like the radio asset assignment, the power portion is chosen separately in every cell and after that performed BSs in appropriated way. Accordingly, an appropriated force designation methodology is proposed in this segment with significance on execution advancement for cell-edge users. Total Power Distribution: First and foremost we partition the aggregate transmission power of each cell into two sections: aggregate power of cell-edge users and cell-center users. Let Pj E and Pj C indicate the aggregate power distributed to cell-edge users and cell-center users in cell j, individually, and PjE+PjC=Pmax. Note that Pmax is assumed to be same for all BSs in the network. The determinations of PjE and PjC are based on following rules; relatively higher power is given in the direction of cell-edge users within order to balance the experienced large distance dependent path loss; and PjE(PjC) is proportional to the number of PRBs occupied with cell-edge (cell centre) users in cell j therefore, the relationship between PjE and PjC is expressed as shown in below equation (5.1) .. (5.1) Where BjC and BjE denote sets of total PRBs occupied by cell-centre and cell-edge users within cell j, respectively, and a(0 Power Allocation for Cell-Centre Users Keep in mind the issue detailing, the reason for comparison (4.4) is to restrictively expand the execution of cell-edge users and there is no improvement for cell-center users, while security of their execution is expressed as an essential breaking point. Subsequently, we essentially power the power designation to cell-center users by uniformly disseminating the aggregate power of cell-center users among their utilized PRBs as a part of every cell. Let pj(c).mn mean the power assigned to PRB n utilized by cell-center user m in cell j. At that point the neighborhood power assignment for cell-center users can choose by pj(c).mn demonstrated in comparison (5.2) pj(c).mn = PjC/|BjC|, .. (5.2) Note that user m in foreordained from the past PRB designation calculations by accomplishing aj.mn=1. Accordingly, in the accompanying we pass up a great opportunity m from the subscript variables of pj(c). Mn and streamline the expression as pj(c)n. To keep away from perplexity, we evacuate the general user file m from the subscript of all variables in the rest of this task. Power Allocation for cell-edge users Given the stable PRB portion and force designation of cell-center users, the first improvement issue demonstrated in comparison (4.4) turns into a raised capacity of power of cell-edge users and can be deteriorated into J parallel sub-issues, where the ideal power allotment to cell-edge users is understood near to every BS of the system. Note that such sub-issues are characterized as a grouping of comparison (5.3), where just joint obstruction between cell-edge and cell-center users is taken into clarification. Let pj(e)n indicate the force assigned to PRB n utilized by a cell-edge user in cell j. Along these lines, the target of P2 for cell j is communicated as demonstrated in underneath mathematical statement (5.3) .. (5.3) Where hjn (hj*n) indicates the joint channel impact on PRBn in cell j(j*) including the channel gain and path loss fading components presented in (3), i.e., hjn=g(j-m)nL_d(j-m)_ and Sjn is a set of neighbouring cells in the network (i.e., j*_=j,j*Ej), inside which PRB n is used with a cell-centre user at the moment. Above equation (5.3) is subject to the following constraints of the equation (5.4) .. (5.4) Where yj*n is the SINR accomplished by a cell-center user of neighboring cell j* to whom p(e)n is the impedance source on PRB n, and Ɇ¦ is a suitable SINR edge decided to keep up elite of cell-center users in cell j*. The thought of P2 is to utilize power allotment to boost execution of cell-edge users under the imperative that execution of cell-center users is not generally give us. In other words, power allocation to cell-edge users to be conditionally optimized During order not to generate undesirable interference to cell-centre users in the network. In addition, here we take for granted that required information about the power allocation of cell-centre users in adjacent cells in known by each BS, which in fact are achievable in future wireless networks where specified links, such as the X2 interference in LTE, are built to connect BSs for necessary information exchange among them. The Optimal Solution can be derived in below equation (5.5) (5.5) As a barrier-constrained water-filling process the deviation can be also described graphically. By defining 1/Hjn as the base, 1/ln2~ÃŽ » as the water level and 1/ln2~ÃŽ »-Tjn as the barrier. The allocated power is indicated by the area (e.g., 1 and 2) below the water level and above both base and barrier. The allocated power is zero when either the base or barrier is above the water level. In addition, if the barrier (blue dashed line) is completely under the base, the base, the problem turns into a conservative water-fitting process. Fig 5.2: An example of a barrier-constrained water-filling process.     Ã‚   Lastly, the optimal solution of ~ÃŽ » and ~pj(e)n can be obtained by well known sub-gradient method, which can assurance a rapid convergence after a number of iterations. The difficulty of the future power distribution is O(||BjE||) which is self-governing of the number of cells in the network. Also this complexity is less than that of the general optimal power allocation where the complexity is O(N). For example, because the optimal power distribution is only executed intended for cell edge users and normally |BjE|

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Daphnia Ecotoxicology Lab Report Essay

Introduction Ecosystems have a way of maintaining themselves under ordinary conditions but when a new factor is added that will most likely threaten the environment action needs to be put forth. Our environment is affected by many pollutants on a daily bases forming a threat to natural stability. For example some of the most polluted parts of the environment are bodies of water like that explained in our lab. Once pollution occurs animals can be affected in many ways even to the brink of death. In the lab the stream is getting pumped with salty potassium filled water that can kill daphnia, habitants of the stream, if the concentration gets too high. To prevent this a real-time assay can be performed. This is a short timed test that we use to measure the effect of pollutant on organism by finding the smallest concentration possible that could still be a bother. This is a valuable tool because we can get direct results from a living organism by detecting stress signals all in a short period of time allowing us o fix the problem quicker. Using an organism for the assay is the best choice because there are many variables that can be used to identify stress on the subject because of a specific input. Materials and Methods Everything is kept the same in every experiment except when concentration differences need to be changed. Meaning all lighting, heating, vibration daphnia numbers will not change to make sure there are minimal changes and differences in the experiments. The sizes of the daphnia are also better to be kept around the same. Daphnia are really quick so picking something to measure in a two-hour interval made it easier to narrow it down to heart rate. Since we can control their space, meaning less area of movement we can see their heart better. This also meant it wouldn’t allow us to measure other things that require a larger area of movement which were the majority of the variables. Chasing down the critters is very hard. Week one was the period of observation where all materials were used while looking at the daphnia so that the variables to be measured are chosen and the methods in how they will be measured are ruled out. Before the lab a handout with information on daphnia should be read to familiarize oneself with the little organisms. For observation we are given a regular microscope, to use with it regular shallow white well plates and a dissecting scope, to use with it a see through 24-well plate. A small amount of water should be added to the both the white wells and about three or four of the clear wells. Now that everything is ready for the daphnia they are to be transferred to the wells be using a pipet that has had its tip cut of to a diameter of about 2-3 mm so the critters aren’t damaged. Write down any observations you see such as variables and movements and any ideas for a possible assay. Week two an assay system will be created using the variable that is chosen versus the concentration of KCl. The concentration we started with, was given, a 1:1 ratio of KCl to pond water meaning that half of the mixture is KCl and half is pond water. To perform this experiment we also need a control that would be 100% pond water. Two regular microscopes are used with the three well white trays. In one tray pond water is added to the three wells, half of the group will look at these and in the other the mixture of 1:1 KCl : pond water is added, the other half of the group will look at these. Daphnia are then transferred using a transfer pipet that has the tip cut to a diameter of 2-3 mm. The experiment needs to start after a 15-minute exposure period maybe shorter because they may start reacting to the different concentrations. Once the slides are in focus view the daphnia to see if there are any changes in the variable if so one partner should start counting while the other is keeping time and writing down results. Every once in a while to keep thing consistent switch who counts and switch around the wells. After the observation period make sure the lights are off so the daphnia aren’t heated and they have enough water, and make sure they don’t get moved around too much. Once the experiment is compare results of KCl concentration versus the control. If something did occur to the daphnia do the KCl concentration experiment but half it, If nothing happened double the concentration. Once you are done take our results and plot them using a T-Test in excel. Week three the daphnia are tested under different concentrations of an herb to see if the herb causes any types of stress on the variable. All of the same methods are done as in week one and two except in preparing the herbal solutions. To prepare the herbal solution the herb needs to be grinded mixed with methanol and left to sit for a few minutes so it can react and separate the important contents of the herb out. In large clear wells the mixture is measured in microliters of 500, 50 and 5, we also measure out 500 of methanol and all of these are left to dry out. Then 5ml of water is added to 5 wells the four including the substances and one without. The methanol only and water only wells are our controls once this is finished the variables are measured like in the previous experiments. Results (on graphs and tables) Discussion Daphnia are very easily affected by even the smallest amount of KCl slowing down their heart rate compared to our controls. Our 1:4 ratio of KCl still slightly affected the heart rate of our daphnia. The daphnia give a clear and quick report on the environmental condition this is why they are good to experiment on.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Minor Disorders in Pregnancy

Pregnancy is a time when a woman’s body will go through numerous adaptations in order to accommodate the fetus. During these physiological adaptations, the organs such as spleen and liver and systems such as the endocrine and circulatory systems will be affected. A woman can experience minor disorders that are most likely the result of hormonal changes on the smooth muscle and connective tissues. This paper endeavours to describe some of the minor disorders in pregnancy in particular, heartburn (reflux oesophagitis), constipation, haemorrhoids, dermatoses and epistaxis.The major physiological reason for heartburn (reflux oesophagitis) in pregnancy is due to the relaxation of the LES(lower esophageal sphincter) and the decreased tone and mobility of the smooth muscles, which is caused from increased progesterone. As the fetus increases in size, pressure in the abdomen compounds, decreasing the angle of the gastroesophageal junction. This allows for oesophageal regurgitation, le ss time for the stomach to empty and reverse peristalsis (Blackburn 2007; Stables & Rankin 2010).The main symptoms of heartburn are a â€Å"burning sensation† in the chest or back of the throat. Other symptoms may include eructation, difficulty in swallowing, and an acid or metal taste in the mouth. In terms of advice, there are some standard measures that can alleviate symptoms. These include examining the woman’s diet and eliminating foods that might aggravate, eating smaller portions and more frequently, sleeping in upright positions and avoidance of eating closer to bedtime (Law et al. 2010; Vazquez 2010).Constipation is known to affect more that 40% of women during their pregnancy (Derbyshire, Davies & Detmar 2007). In looking at the physiological reason for constipation, increasing levels of progesterone affects bowel motility and reduces the peristaltic movement of the gastrointestinal tract. This is turn then increases the time food is passed through the gut ca using increases in electrolyte and subsequent absorption of water in the large intestine. Motilin a hormone that assists faeces to pass through the colon is also decreased by the levels of progesterone (Derbyshire, Davies & Detmar 2007).Constipation could also be the result of hyperemesis gravidarum (pernicious vomiting in pregnancy), or ingestion of prescribed iron tablets for anaemia (Tiran 2003). A diet rich in fibre and increasing fluid intake can help to ease some of the associated problems with constipation. Laxatives should only be used when dietary changes do not assist. In addition women should be advised that ignoring signs for defecation will compound symptoms (Jewell & Young 1996; Vazquez 2010). The levels of fibre and fluid consumed should be noted by healthcare professionals when attending to women (Derbyshire, Davies & Detmar 2007).Haemorrhoids occurs in pregnancy in 25 – 35% of women and in some populations it can reach 85% (Staroselsky et al. 2008). Haemorrho ids occur due to progesterone causing vasodilation in the ano-rectal area. In some cases there is a direct relationship between constipation and the formation of haemorrhoids. Main symptoms are itching, burning, swelling around the anus and bleeding. Pain with bowel movements and bleeding are often the first signs of haemorrhoids. As there is a close relationship between constipation and haemorrhoids, the advice given to women with regards to treatment would be similar to constipation.In (Staroselsky et al. 2008) it is stated that topical treatments and the use of laxatives can reduce symptoms. The integumentary system is no different to any of the other systems affected by physiological changes in pregnancy. There are a number of skin irritations that can cause discomfort to a woman during her pregnancy, but these do not harm the fetus. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is increased by progesterone and oestrogen levels. Chloasma or â€Å"pregnancy mask† is one of the conditions to arise from hormone increases (Stables & Rankin 2010).Hyperpigmentation is the most common skin alteration in pregnancy. About 90% of women will develop linea nigra which is found running from the xiphoid process to the pubis. A common dermatoses found in pregnancy is a condition called PUPP (pruritic urticarial papules and plaques) The development of PUPP in pregnancy is 1 in 160 (Sachdeva 2008). This usually occurs in the primagravida in the third trimester and in rare cases in the first and second. In (Brzoza et al. 2007; Roth 2009) the reasons for PUPP is unclear but suggestions are made that maternal weight gain in primiparous women is the cause.Interestingly statistics show that 2. 9% of twin pregnancies and 14% of triplet pregnancies develop PUPP. It is thought, that abdominal distension, hormonal, autoimmune and change in partners (implication of paternal antigens) could attribute to the condition. Conditions such as Pemphigoid gestationis (PG), Intrahepatic cholestasis o f pregnancy (ICP), and Atopic eruption of pregnancy ( AEP) require the monitoring from dermatologists, obstetricians, midwives and other relevant healthcare practitioners as they do pose high risks to mother and baby (Brzoza et al. 007; Sachdeva 2008). With PUPP the main symptoms women complain of is an intense itching usually around the abdomen and in some cases breasts, upper thighs and arms. In the case of PUPP’s, the application of topical steroids, emollient creams and ointments may be applied and in severe cases oral treatments may be sought (Roth 2009). Epistaxis (nosebleeds) is considered a minor disorder but in one study has proven to be life threatening. Oestrogen rises, which causes hyperactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system which in turn causes nasal congestion.One of the other reasons is systemic blood pressure increases in pregnancy. Complications from nosebleeds is rare, but if not monitored could lead to haemorrhage (Hardy, Connolly & Weir 2008). In t his study a woman presented at 26 weeks with epistaxis but 48 hours later continued to bleed and surgery was the outcome. There is also evidence that chronic rhinosinusitis can lead to epistaxis. One study 44% of women between the ages of 26-30 and presenting in the third trimester appeared to have the highest incidence of epistaxis.It must be noted that though this study was conducted in a third world country where nourishment, hygiene and education are an issue, there are potential risks of epistaxis in pregnancy. (Purushothaman 2010) Maternal morbidity in pregnancy is very well researched and evidence based, but the impacts that minor disorders have on a woman’s family or her emotional state is not well documented. However, there is one such Australian study stating the impact on women. In (Gartland et al. 2010) it showed that 68% experienced multiple disorders which had a cumulative effect and therefore greater impact.What is interesting in the study was that women aged b etween 18-24, had a poor perception of health, socio-economic and education issues. In comparison to those older women who had stable relationships, well educated and better perception of health. The study demonstrated that a woman’s support network, access to professional advice and education can greatly impact her wellbeing and those around her. This assignment has explained the physiology and reasons for minor disorders in pregnancy. It is important that midwives and relevant healthcare professionals monitor women so as to prevent further complications to mother and child.The health and wellbeing of a mother and her unborn child is always the utmost priority of healthcare professionals. . References Blackburn, S. T. 2007, Maternal, fetal & neonatal physiology : a clinical perspective, 3rd edn, Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Mo. Brzoza, Z. , Kasperska-Zajac, A. , Oles, E. & Rogala, B. 2007, ‘Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy', Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 44-8. Derbyshire, E. J. , Davies, J. ; Detmar, P. 2007, ‘Changes in Bowel Function: Pregnancy and the Puerperium', Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, p. 324. 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